To see a more complete list of my publications, check the most recent version of my CV.

* indicates peer-reviewed publication.

Faith-based Education

*Swaner, L. E., Eckert, J., Ellefsen, E., & Lee, M. H. (2023). Innovative structural and financial models in U.S. Christian education. International Journal of Educational Development, 100. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2023.102784.

Lee, M. H., & Swaner, L. E. (2023). “Public schools have lost over a million students. Here’s where they’re going.” National Review. Available at:

*Cheng, A., Lee, M. H., & Djita, R. R. (2023). A cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between Sabbath practices and US, Canadian, Indonesian, and Paraguayan teachers’ burnout. Journal of Religion and Health, 62(2). doi:10.1007/s10943-022-01647-w.

*Lee, M. H., & Cheng, A. (2021). “The preparation and practice of Protestant school leadership: Evidence from a nationally representative U.S. sample.” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 30(3): 1-26. doi:10.1080/10656219.2021.1986443.

Lee, M. H., Cheng, A., & Wiens, K. (2021). 2020 principal survey. Kennesaw: Council on Educational Standards & Accountability. Available at:

Swaner, L. E., & Lee, M. H. (2020). Christian schools and COVID-19: 2020-2021 school year profile. Colorado Springs: Association of Christian Schools International. Available at:

Measurement of Student Abilities and Outcomes

Wai, J. (with Lee, M. H.). (2023). “GPT retook the GRE and improved: Could you?” Forbes. Available at:

*Lee, M. H., & Wai, J. (2023). Initial vs. retest GRE performance: A study of one million Graduate Record Examination test-retest observations. Personality and Individual Differences, 207. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2023.112180.

*Wai, J., Lee, M. H., & Kell, H. J.  (2022). Distributions of academic math-verbal tilt and overall academic skill of students specializing in different fields: A study of 1.6 million graduate record examination test takers. Intelligence, 95. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2022.101701.

*Lee, M. H., & Beck, M. I. (2022). Assessing the impact of Holocaust education on adolescents’ civic values: Experimental evidence from Arkansas. Evaluation Review, 45(6). Working paper available at:

Educational Liberty

*Price, E. W., & Lee, M. H. (2023). Principled politics, regulatory reluctance: Conditions moderating private school choice program participation. Journal of School Choice.

*Lee, M. H., Price, E. W., & Swaner, L. E. (2022). The effect of private school choice regulations on school participation: Experimental evidence from the Christian school sector. Journal of School Choice. doi:10.1080/15582159.2022.2113011.

Wolf, P. J., Lee, M. H., & Watson, A. R. (2020). “Harvard Law professor’s attack on homeschooling is a flawed failure. And terribly timed, too.” Education Next Blog. Available at: #5 most downloaded post in 2020.

*Lee, M. H., Mills, J. N., & Wolf, P. J. (2020). Heterogeneous achievement impacts across schools in the Louisiana Scholarship Program. Journal of School Choice, 14(2): 1-26. doi:10.1080/15582159.2020.1756719. Working paper available at:

%d bloggers like this: